More and more bacteria develop resistance to existing antibiotics. Researchers are working flat out on new Paths, to find alternative antibiotics. You are looking for, especially in the nature – on plants, insects or in soil samples.
You will find yourself in waters, on the battle of chicken and in clinics: antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a risk, especially for immunocompromised people. The world health organization (WHO) also spread infectious diseases to Worry: about 500,000 new tuberculosis cases in 2016, at least two antibiotics had already, 250,000 people a year die of drug-resistant tuberculosis pathogens. Also against pneumonia or urinary tract infections common antibiotics do not help more often. At the same time, it is for researchers and industry are becoming harder to develop new weapons against the bacteria.
"All simple target structures in the bacterium gefunden" are;
"There are to be targets for antibiotics, but it has become more difficult. All simple target structures in the bacterium gefunden" are;, the infection Loge Winfried Kern from the University hospital of Freiburg, says. However, there are interesting research approaches.
Scientists working with Bradley Hover of the Rockefeller University in New York analyzed in the search for new antibiotics about 2000 samples of soils across the United States, as in the journal "Nature Microbiology" reports.
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Common antibiotics do not help – in what researchers now hope
1. Malacidine: The so-discovered active ingredients – Malacidine called – are a new class of broad-spectrum antibiotics against many bacteria species act. In an animal wound, they killed even the most dangerous Hospital bacteria MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), which can trigger ulcers, urinary tract infections, pneumonia or blood poisoning. Healthy animal cells showed no symptoms of poisoning. Whether or not a drug is, is still uncertain. Only one out of ten drugs that get to clinical examination, in these studies, people successfully.
"This is a great Chance that it is the genes sucht", Axel Brakhage, Director of the Leibniz-Institute for natural product research and infection biology in Jena, the analyzed fungi by genetic engineering says. "There is a huge treasure in the nature, we can still lift." With or without genetic engineering: Other researchers have found antibiotics in leaves, on bees or of bacteria inhabiting ants.
"However, there are fewer and fewer companies, the antibiotics entwickeln", Brakhage says. With other medications leave a lot to earn more money. His Team developed the tuberculosis-active compound, BTZ043. Alone the animal experiments cost several million euros. Until the completion of the first of three required clinical trials, there were 13.5 million euros. It was hard, the money of the public Hand together.
There are also approaches to fight bacteria without antibiotics
2. Phage: more than 100 years Ago were bacteriophages discovered. The are viruses, not human cells, but very specific types of bacteria to destroy. While Western medicine have set after the Second world war on antibiotics, had been in Georgia more phage used, explains microbiologist Wolfgang Beyer, University of Hohenheim – such as against inflammation of the lungs.
In the West, the phage research in flackere only in the last few years, but there is, as yet, not completed a European clinical study. "Pharmaceutical companies have no interest in phage therapy, because all the important steps are already published and therefore not patentable." For the industry, it was also expensive, to ensure the mass production of the phage according to the prescribed quality standards.
The main obstacle for phage therapy in the EU, however, is the Lack of an approval procedure for such date which are not used systems, says Beyer. The EU launched in 2013, the project Phagoburn, with the researchers burns with phage-treated. "It is much raus" was not, however;, so Beyer. A first attempt had only had a few patients, in addition, brand be colonized wounds of many kinds of bacteria, phages have had but very specific.
In Germany, in 2017 began with the support of the Ministry of research, the project Phage4Cure to develop a therapy with inhaled phage against the dreaded hospital germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinical Trials to start, according to Beyer, at the earliest, 2020. In Belgium, after all, Doctors an individual patient is likely to give a recipe, so that this phage can pick up in a specially oriented pharmacy.
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Vaccination against resistant hospital germs
3. Vaccines: "There is since many years the development of new vaccines against resistant hospital germs such as Staphylococcus aureus", Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding from the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut in Langen near Frankfurt. "Again and again, these products have been initially very good. In animal experiments and small clinical studies, protecting them against the infection. And then, most of the time, they failed in large clinical trials."
The causes are not always clear. "The body is colonized with such bacteria – they are the people dangerous when the immune system is weakened." It could be, therefore, that the vaccines have not been sufficient to change the already existing immune response so that it provides sufficient protection. In addition, many subjects diseased during the study period, not the desired germs. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult, in the studies with sufficient patients with the right infections to be incorporated. Their number is therefore often too small for statistically significant statements. There is currently, however, studies. "We can hope that it is possible to vaccinate in 15 to 20 years, against these bacteria."
Pharmaceutical companies and countries to operate more antibiotic research
WHO calls for by pharmaceutical companies and States more antibiotic research, one cannot rely solely on market forces. Of dozens of new funds, according to the WHO in the development, offered only a few really new ways of treatment. The others were modifications of older materials with the increased risk of resistance.
In Germany of this century have been brought in the first decade, according to the Association of Research-based pharmaceutical manufacturers (VFA), eight new antibiotics on the market, in the second decade, there could be more than 16. Here, too, the most are no new classes of Antibiotics, but are similar to already existing drugs.
They are directed particularly against the most dreaded hospital germ MRSA and other so-called gram-positive bacteria with a similar cell wall structure. But, above all, against the second major group of Bacteria – the gram-negative – there are according to the WHO, to be new drugs. They include the gut bacterium Escherichia coli and the hospital germ Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Small market and low sales for new antibiotics
As new antibiotics as reserve funds are often used only when it is urgently needed, there is initially a very small market for them and little turnover. "The industry, individual projects to antibiotic development from the General revenue mitfinanzieren", VFA-research speaker Rolf Hömke says. But they could not extend the development activity that would be uneconomical.
But this is exactly what is international wrestling. So, there are agreements of the G7 and G20, and international initiatives to encourage antibiotic development, including that of the WHO-initiated program GARDP to the Germany and other countries have says about 56 million euros as a Research kick-off the course. However, the costs of developing an antibiotic for the industry, according to the VFA, roughly one billion euros is estimated.
Poorer countries must be supported in the research strongly
The antibiotics research is needed in the fight against bacteria is not to win but to. "New drugs are of course wichtig", antibiotics expert Tim Eckmanns Robert Koch-Institute says. But that is not a solution to the global resistance problem. "Where we have the biggest problems in Africa, get the new meds, anyway." Of the continent, but also India, will also need more support in the fight against resistant bacteria, what is the RKI do already, as in the construction of laboratories.
In Germany, the Situation was better. Nevertheless in large University hospitals already every few weeks a patients, the no antibiotic was helping. "That is, Yes, still not necessarily that he dies. A Patient has own Kräfte", Eckmanns says. "We need to act, this is totally important, but we are nearing the post antibiotic era."